ART AND CALLIGRAPHY


ART AND CALLIGRAPHY
Ornamental entrance gates to the Israel Presidents Residence, 1971, by Bezalel Schatz (19121978), Israeli sculptor. The gates contain themes of the menorah, the Hebrew letter shin, a tree, and praying hands. Iron. Photo: David Harris., Israeli sculptor. The gates contain themes of the menorah, the Hebrew letter shin, a tree, and praying hands. Iron. Photo: David Harris.") Ornamental entrance gates to the Israel President's Residence, 1971, by Bezalel Schatz (1912–1978), Israeli sculptor. The gates contain themes of the menorah, the Hebrew letter shin, a tree, and praying hands. Iron. Photo: David Harris.   THROUGHOUT THE TWENTIETH CENTURY THERE HAS BEEN SOME DEBATE AS TO WHAT MAKES A WORK OF ART "JEWISH." DOES THE ART HAVE TO CONTAIN JEWISH THEMES AND IMAGES, OR IS THE FACT THAT THE ARTIST IS JEWISH ENOUGH TO CALL IT JEWISH ART? JEWISH ART THAT FITS EITHER DEFINITION IS PRESENTED HERE TO SHOW ITS DIVERSITY, INCLUDING A SAMPLER OF CALLIGRAPHIC WORK THAT WAS CREATED DURING THE LATTER PART OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY, WHEN THERE WAS A RENEWED INTEREST IN THE APPLICATIONS OF HEBREW CALLIGRAPHY.   Travelers Prayer, 1969, by Fred Pauker, using his internationally acclaimed letter design. Mrs. Evelyn Pauker. Traveler's Prayer, 1969, by Fred Pauker, using his internationally acclaimed letter design. © Mrs. Evelyn Pauker.   Sailor with Guitar, 1914, by Jacques Lipchitz (18911973), born in Lithuania, active in France. Bronze, 31 11 58 8 12 in. Philadelphia Museum of ArtCorbis., born in Lithuania, active in France. Bronze, 31 11 58 8 12 in. Philadelphia Museum of ArtCorbis.") Sailor with Guitar, 1914, by Jacques Lipchitz (1891–1973), born in Lithuania, active in France. Bronze, 31 × 11 5/8 × 8 1/2 in. © Philadelphia Museum of Art/Corbis.     Portrait of Jeanne Hebuterne, Seated, 1918, by Amadeo Modigliani (18841920), born in Italy, active in France. Oil on canvas. Gift of Stella Fishbach to the American Friends of the Israel Museum. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem., born in Italy, active in France. Oil on canvas. Gift of Stella Fishbach to the American Friends of the Israel Museum. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem.") Portrait of Jeanne Hebuterne, Seated, 1918, by Amadeo Modigliani (1884–1920), born in Italy, active in France. Oil on canvas. Gift of Stella Fishbach to the American Friends of the Israel Museum. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum, by Yoram Lehmann.     Crying Girl, 1964, by Roy Lichtenstein (19231997), American pop artist. Enamel on steel. Estate of Roy Lichtenstein., American pop artist. Enamel on steel. Estate of Roy Lichtenstein.") Crying Girl, 1964, by Roy Lichtenstein (1923–1997), American pop artist. Enamel on steel. © Estate of Roy Lichtenstein.   We Dont Need Another Hero, 1987, by Barbara Kruger (1945), American photographer. Photographic silkscreen. Photograph by ZindmanFremont. Courtesy Mary Boone Gallery, New York., American photographer. Photographic silkscreen. Photograph by ZindmanFremont. Courtesy Mary Boone Gallery, New York.") We Don't Need Another Hero, 1987, by Barbara Kruger (1945–), American photographer. Photographic silkscreen. Photograph by Zindman/Fremont. Courtesy Mary Boone Gallery, New York.     The Ten Commandments in mixed media gilded with 23.5 gold leaf on fine artist paper, 90 120 cm, by Malla Carl. The Ten Commandments in mixed media gilded with 23.5 gold leaf on fine artist paper, 90 × 120 cm, by Malla Carl.     Organize? With 1,250,000 Workers Backing Us, Of Course We Will Organize, late 1930s, by Ben Shahn (18981969), American painter and photographer, born in Lithuania. Oil on canvas. The Granger Collection., American painter and photographer, born in Lithuania. Oil on canvas. The Granger Collection.") Organize? With 1,250,000 Workers Backing Us, Of Course We Will Organize, late 1930s, by Ben Shahn (1898–1969), American painter and photographer, born in Lithuania. Oil on canvas. The Granger Collection.     The Tribe of Joseph, 1960, by Marc Chagall (18871985), born in Russia, active in France. This is one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel stained glass windows in the Abbell Synagogue at the Hadassah University Medical Center in Jerusalem., born in Russia, active in France. This is one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel stained glass windows in the Abbell Synagogue at the Hadassah University Medical Center in Jerusalem.") The Tribe of Joseph, 1960, by Marc Chagall (1887–1985), born in Russia, active in France. This is one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel stained glass windows in the Abbell Synagogue at the Hadassah University Medical Center in Jerusalem. © ADAGP, Paris 2006.     Double Jeopardy, Panel 1 from the Holocaust Project: From Darkness Into Light, 19851993, by Judy Chicago (1969), American artist. Multimedia artwork. 2006 Judy ChicagoArtists Rights Society (ARS), New York., American artist. Multimedia artwork. 2006 Judy ChicagoArtists Rights Society (ARS), New York.") Double Jeopardy, Panel 1 from the Holocaust Project: From Darkness Into Light, 1985–1993, by Judy Chicago (1969–), American artist. Multimedia artwork. © 2006 Judy Chicago/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.   Sukkot, early twentieth century, by Issachar Ryback (18971935), Russian painter. Oil and collage on canvas. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum., Russian painter. Oil and collage on canvas. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo The Israel Museum.") Sukkot, early twentieth century, by Issachar Ryback (1897–1935), Russian painter. Oil and collage on canvas. Collection, The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Photo © The Israel Museum.   Half Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA Title Page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA SECOND EDITION VOLUME 5 COH–DOZ FRED SKOLNIK, Editor in Chief MICHAEL BERENBAUM, Executive Editor Copyright Page copyright page ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning Gordon Macomber, President Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher Jay Flynn, Publisher Hélène Potter, Publishing Director Keter Publishing House Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 ©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. Gale, is a part of The Cengage Learning Inc. Cengage, Burst Logo and Macmillan Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a registered trademark used herein under license. For more information, contact Macmillan Reference USA An imprint of Gale 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 Or you can visit our internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems – without the written permission of the publisher. 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Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the publication of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. — 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 4 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865941-4 (vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 18: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865949-X (vol. 21: alk. paper) — ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 1\. Jews — Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- DS102.8.E496 2007 909′.04924 — dc22      2006020426 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) This title is also available as an e-book ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 Contact your Gale, an imprint of Cengage Learning representative for ordering information. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Entries COH–DOZ 5 • Abbreviations GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 775 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE 776 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS 782 • Transliteration Rules 795 Glossary 798 COHEN COHEN, Italian family of majolica makers, active in Pesaro and Ancona from 1614 to 1673. The following names are known: ISAAC (Pesaro, 1613–14), JACOB (Ancona, 1654), and ISAAC (II; Ancona, 1673–77). Together with the azulai family, the Cohen family produced most of the majolica seder dishes that were made in Renaissance Italy. In the case of dishes made by Jacob Cohen, the manufacturer's mark is a crown to denote priesthood, instead of the usual Star of David. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Roth, in: Eretz Israel, 7 (1964), 106–11. (David Maisel)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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